NDA 2020: Application Form Dates, Pattern, Syllabus

NDA 2020 Application Form can be filled till 28th January 2020. The exam will be conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). UPSC NDA entrance exam is a gateway for the aspirants who want to make their career in the Indian Army, Navy and Air Force. This national level test is held twice (NDA I and NDA II) every year in the months of April and November. Candidates have to first qualify the written test with the minimum qualifying marks and then appear in the SSB Interview round to get entry into the NDA. After clearing the SSB round, qualified candidates will go through the medical examination and document verification process. Through this article, we have provided complete details regarding NDA 2020.

NDA I 2020 Application Form can be filled till 28th January 2020


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JEE Main 2020 Application Form – Registration Form Releases

JEE Main 2020 Application Form – NTA releases JEE Main application form for the April attempt online on in. Application form releases on February 07, 2020, and the last date to apply is March 07, 2020. Registration opens for both types of candidates, i.e. Appearing the first time for the exam and candidates who have appeared in the January exam. The only difference is that the already registered candidates need not register again and can directly login with Jan login details and fill the application form. However, new candidates have to register from scratch. To know more about how to apply for JEE Main 2020 Apr, documents needed, fees, read below.

Apply online: Candidates can fill JEE Main 2020 application form as per the schedule above at jeemain.nta.nic.in

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CLAT Syllabus 2020

CLAT Syllabus 2020 – The Consortium of National Law Universities has released the CLAT 2020 syllabus on its official website. The syllabus of CLAT 2020 gives an overview of subjects candidates have to cover while doing their preparation. CLAT syllabus 2020 contains all the topics which will form the basis of the test paper. It should be noted that CLAT 2020 syllabus is different for 5-year integrated LLB than the one for LLM admission test. The CLAT syllabus for undergraduate entrance test will include topics like general knowledge & current affairs, English, legal aptitude and logical reasoning. Sections such as Constitutional Law, Jurisprudence, Law of Torts, Criminal Law, International Law, and others are included for postgraduate CLAT 2020 syllabus. Read the complete article to know more about the detailed CLAT syllabus 2020, exam pattern and other CLAT related information.

CLAT 2020 Syllabus – Undergraduate Level

Candidates must note that the following topics will be covered in the CLAT 2020 for five-year integrated law admission test.

CLAT Syllabus (Undergraduate)


comprehension passagesGrammarword meaningsincorrect/correct sentences


algebraprofit and losstime and workaverage, speed and distancepermutation-combination and Venn diagramsstatistical estimationMensuration

General Knowledge & Current Affairs

Static general knowledge including History, Polity, Geography, Environment, etc.Current affairs- national of national and international importance, sports, new appointments, awards and honours etc.

Logical Reasoning

Logical and Analytical reasoning skills

Legal Aptitude

Study of lawResearch aptitudeProblem-solving abilityQuestions based on hypothetical situationsImportant court decisions

CLAT Syllabus – Explained

English – In this section, the questions will be based on comprehension passages of 450 words each, mainly derived from contemporary or historically significant fiction and non-fiction writing. In the comprehension section, candidates will be assessed on their understanding of the passage and its central theme, meanings of words used therein, etc. The comprehension passage will be followed by a series of questions based on the passage. The questions will also be asked to test candidate’s knowledge of grammar and vocabulary, word phrase and meaning etc.

CLAT syllabus for Maths

Short sets of facts or propositions
diagrammatic representations of numerical information
ratios and proportion
basic algebra
statistical estimation

General knowledge & Current affairs- Questions in General knowledge and current affairs will also be in the form of some comprehension passage of 450 words each. Each passage will be followed by some questions, intended to test candidates ability to understand the legal information and knowledge discussed in the passage. The topics of General knowledge and Current affairs include the following.

CLAT syllabus for General knowledge and Current affairs

Contemporary events of significance from India and the worldArts and culture
International affairsHistorical events of continuing significance

Logical Reasoning- In this section, candidates will be given passages of around 300 words each. From each passage, one or more questions will be asked in the examination. Logical reasoning topics include the following topics.

CLAT syllabus for Logical reasoning

Recognize an argument, its premises and conclusionsRelationships and analogies, identify contradictions and equivalence
Assessing the effectiveness of arguments.Inferring from the passage and applying them in new situations.
Critical analysis of reasoning and drawing conclusions on the basis of premises or evidence.Drawing arguments from the passage

Legal Aptitude- This section will also contain the comprehension based questions of 450 words each. The passages will contain topics from legal matters, public policy questions or moral philosophical enquiries. The section will contain preposition and facts based problems. Having a general awareness of contemporary legal and moral issues will be helpful in understanding the passages and solving questions form them. The legal aptitude section intends to test candidates on the following aspects.

  • Identifying and inferring the principles and rules given in the passage.
  • Applying the given rules and principles in various situations.
  • Understanding the changes in the application of various fact situations with the changes in the rules and principles

CLAT Syllabus 2020: LLM Syllabus

The following topics will be covered in the CLAT 2020 for LLM. Candidates will be notified of any new updates for the new session if there are any changes.

CLAT LLM Syllabus

1Constitutional Law
2Law of Torts
3International Law
5Intellectual Property Law
6Law of Contracts
7Criminal Law

Constitutional Law- It refers to the rights stated and implemented in the federal and state constitutions. The majority of this body of law has developed from state and federal supreme court rulings, which interpret their respective constitutions and ensure that the laws passed by the legislature do not violate constitutional limits.

Law of Torts- In common law jurisdictions, it is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.

CLAT 2020 Syllabus – Marks distribution

The following table contains section-wise marks distribution for BA LLB and LLM programmes:

  1. CLAT – UG – Subject wise marks distribution

The Consortium of National Law Universities has changed the exam pattern for CLAT 2020. As per the latest updates, CLAT 2020 (UG) will have 150 questions each carrying one mark. The updated details of subject wise marks distribution are given below.

CLAT syllabus 2020 (UG) – Subject wise marks distribution

SubjectsNumber of QuestionsMarks
English and comprehension28-32 questions28 – 32
Elementary Mathematics (Numerical Ability)13-17 questions13 – 17
General Knowledge and Current Affairs35-39 questions35 – 39
Logical Reasoning28-32 questions28 – 32
Legal Aptitude35-39 questions35 – 39
  1. CLAT 2020 Syllabus- LLM programme

The question paper of CLAT PG will include both multiple-choice questions (MCQs), and essay type questions. MCQs and comprehension based questions will carry 100 questions of one mark each, while subjective questions will be of 50 marks; for full details consult the tables below.

Multiple Choice Questions

S.NoSubjectsNumber of QuestionsMarks
1Constitutional Law4040
2Other Law Subjects such as Contract, Torts, Criminal Law, International Law, IPR and Jurisprudence.6060

Subjective type questions:

The paper will include two essay type questions each carrying 25 marks; the topics of the essay would be law and contemporary issues. The word limit for the essays will be 800 words.

CLAT Syllabus 2020 – Paper Pattern

Please note, the entrance examination for both undergraduate and postgraduate courses will be held on the same date. Candidates can refer to the table given below to understand the paper pattern of CLAT 2020.

CLAT Exam Pattern – Undergraduate

Mode of ExaminationOffline
Duration of Examination2 hours
Language OptionsEnglish
Type of QuestionsMCQ
Total Number of Questions150
Negative Marking0.25 marks for each incorrect attempt

CLAT Exam Pattern – Postgraduate

Mode of ExaminationOffline
Duration of Examination2 hours
Language OptionsEnglish
Type of QuestionsObjective and subjective (essay) type
Total Number of Questions100 (objective type) + 2 essay type questions (800 words per essay)
Negative Marking0.25 marks will be deducted for an incorrect attempt
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JEE Main 2020 Syllabus

JEE Main Syllabus 2020 has been released by National Testing Agency. This year, the authority is conducting JEE Main 2020 for three papers – Paper 1 (Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics) and Paper 2 (Mathematics, Aptitude, Drawing) and Paper 3 (Mathematics, Aptitude Test and Planning Based Questions). JEE Main 2020 will be held twice a year.

JEE Main 2020 Mathematics Syllabus

The Mathematics section of JEE Main 2020 will be of 100 marks (25 questions of 4 marks each). However, for any question answered incorrectly, one mark will be deducted. In 2019, the highest weightage in Mathematics was given to chapters like sequence and series, straight lines, 3D, Determinant, etc. Check out the detailed JEE Main January 2020 Paper 1 syllabus for Mathematics.

Unit 1: Sets, relations and functionsSets and their representationUnion, intersection and complement of sets and their algebraic propertiesPower set; Relation, Types of relations, equivalence relations, functions; One-one, into and onto functions, the composition of functions.
Unit 2: Complex numbers and quadratic equationsComplex numbers as ordered pairs of reals,Representation of complex numbers in the form a+ib and their representation in a plane,Argand diagram,algebra of complex numbers,modulus and argument (or amplitude) of a complex number,square root of a complex number,triangle inequality,Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions.Relation between roots and co-efficients, nature of roots, formation of quadratic equations with given roots.
Unit 3: Matrices and determinantsMatrices,algebra of matrices,types of matrices,determinants andmatrices of order two and three.Properties of determinants,evaluation of determinants,area of triangles using determinants.Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations,Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using determinants and matrices.
Unit 4:Permutations and combinationsFundamental principle of counting,permutation as an arrangement andcombination as selection,Meaning of P (n,r) and C (n,r),simple applications.
Unit 5: Mathematical inductionPrinciple of Mathematical Induction and its simple applications
Unit 6: Binomial theorem and its simple applicationsBinomial theorem for a positive integral index,general term and middle term,properties of Binomial coefficientssimple applications
Unit 7: Sequences and seriesArithmetic and Geometric progressions,insertion of arithmetic,geometric means between two given numbersrelation between A.M. and G.M. sum upto n terms of special series: S n, S n2, Sn3Arithmetic – Geometric progression
UNIT 8: Limit, continuity and differentiabilityReal – valued functions,algebra of functions,polynomials,rational,trigonometric,logarithmic and exponential functions,inverse functionsGraphs of simple functionsLimits, continuity and differentiabilityDifferentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functionsDifferentiation of trigonometric,inverse trigonometric,logarithmic,exponential,composite and implicit functionsderivatives of order upto twoRolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value TheoremsApplications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonic – increasing and decreasing functions,Maxima and minima of functions of one variable,tangents and normals
Unit 9: Integral calculusIntegral as an anti – derivative.Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities.
Evaluation of simple integrals of the type Integral as limit of a sum.Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.Properties of definite integrals.Evaluation of definite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in standard form.
Unit 10: Differential equationsOrdinary differential equations, their order and degree.Formation of differential equations.Solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of homogeneous and linear differential equations of the type: dy/dx+p(x)y=q(x)
Unit 11: Co-ordinate geometryCartesian system of rectangular co-ordinates 10 in a plane,distance formula,section formula,locus and its equation,translation of axes,slope of a line,parallel and perpendicular lines,intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes.
Straight lines: Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines, conditions for concurrence of three lines, distance of a point from a line, equations of internal and external bisectors of angles between two lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines.
Circles, conic sections: Standard form of equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre, equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given, points of intersection of a line and a circle with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to a circle, equation of the tangent. Sections of cones, equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms, condition for y = mx + c to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency.
Unit 12: Three dimensional geometryCoordinates of a point in space, distance between two points, section formula, direction ratios and direction cosines, angle between two intersecting lines.Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and its equation.Equations of a line and a plane in different forms, intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines.
Unit 13: Vector algebraVectors and scalars,addition of vectors,components of a vector in two dimensions and three dimensional space,scalar and vector products, scalar and vector triple product.
Unit 14: Statistics and probabilityMeasures of Dispersion: Calculation of mean, median, mode of grouped and ungrouped data calculation of standard deviation, variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data.Probability: Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability, Baye’s theorem, probability distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution.
Unit 15: TrigonometryTrigonometrical identities and equationsTrigonometrical functionsInverse trigonometrical functions and their propertiesHeights and Distances
Unit 16: Mathematical reasoningStatements, logical operations and, or, implies, implied by, if and only ifUnderstanding of tautology, contradiction, converse and contrapositive

JEE Main Topicwise Weightage for Mathematics

Below is the previous years JEE Main weightage along with important topics asked in the exam.

TopicsNo of QuestionsMarksWeightage
Quadratic Equation143.33%
Sequences and  Series286.67%
Trigonometric Equation143.33%
Indefinite Integration143.33%
Definite Integration143.33%
Differential Equation143.33%
Area Under the Curve143.33%
Straight Line286.67%
Permutation and combination143.33%
Complex Number143.33%
Binominal Theorem143.33%
Tangent and Normal143.33%
Maxima and Minima143.33%
Mathematical Reasoning143.33%
Height & Distance143.33%

JEE Main 2020 Physics Syllabus

Physics is one of the major sections of JEE Main syllabus 2020. Students have to answer around 25 questions carrying 4 marks each. JEE Main syllabus for Physics comprises topics like Kinematics, Optics, Laws Of Motion, Rotational Motion, Gravitation, Properties Of Solids And Liquids etc. Last year, the highest weightage in Physics was given to topics like current electricity, alternating current, Rotational dynamics, Modern Physics etc. The JEE Main Physics syllabus includes two sections A and B. Section A includes Theory part with 80% weightage and section B contains practical component (experimental skills) with 20% weightage. Check out the full syllabus JEE Main January 2020 Paper 1 Syllabus for Physics below.

Unit 1: Physics And MeasurementPhysics, technology and society, S I units, Fundamental and derived unitsLeast count, accuracy and precision of measuring instruments,Errors in measurement,Dimensions of Physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications
Unit 2: KinematicsFrame of referenceMotion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocityUniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocityUniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion.Scalars and Vectors, Vector addition and Subtraction, Zero Vector, Scalar and Vector products, Unit Vector, Resolution of a VectorRelative Velocity, Motion in a plane, Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion
Unit 3: Laws Of MotionForce and Inertia,Newton’s First Law of motion; Momentum, Newton’s Second Law of motion; Impulse; Newton’s Third Law of motion.Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications, Equilibrium of concurrent forces.
Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction
Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force and its applications.
Unit 4: Work, Energy And PowerWork done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, work energy theorem, power.
Potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and non-conservative forces; Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
Unit 5: Rotational MotionCentre of mass of a two-particle system, Centre of mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of rotational motion; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum and its applications; moment of inertia, radius of gyration.Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.Rigid body rotation, equations of rotational motion.
Unit 6: GravitationThe universal law of gravitation.Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential.Escape velocity.Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.
Unit 7: Properties Of Solids And LiquidsElastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s Law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity.Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications.Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number. Bernoulli’s principle and its applications.Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension – drops, bubbles and capillary rise.Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state, latent heat.Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, Newton’s law of cooling.
Unit 8: ThermodynamicsThermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, concept of temperature.Heat, work and internal energy.First law of thermodynamics.Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes.Carnot engine and its efficiency.
Unit 9: Kinetic Theory Of GasesEquation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.Kinetic theory of gases – assumptions, concept of pressure.Kinetic energy and temperature: rms speed of gas molecules; Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy, applications to specific heat capacities of gases; Mean free path, Avogadro’s number.
Unit 10: Oscillations And WavesPeriodic motion – period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring -restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. – kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum – derivation of expression for its time period; Free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance
Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect in sound
Unit 11: ElectrostaticsElectric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-forces between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
 Electric field: Electric field due to a point charge, Electric field lines, Electric dipole, Electric field due to a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.-Electric flux, Gauss’s law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field.-Conductors and insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, Energy stored in a capacitor. 
Unit 12: Currrent Electricity Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohm’s law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of different materials, V-I characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors, Electrical energy and power, Electrical resistivity, Colour code for resistors; Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance.Electric Cell and its Internal resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.Kirchhoff’s laws and their applications.Wheatstone bridge, Metre bridge.Potentiometer – principle and its applications.
Unit 13: Magnetic Effects Of Current And MagnetismBiot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Moving coil galvanometer, its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro- magnetic substances.Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent magnets.
Unit 14: Electromagnetic Induction And Alternating CurrentsElectromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents.Self and mutual inductance.Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance; Quality factor, power in AC circuits, wattless current.AC generator and transformer.
Unit 15: Electromagnetic WavesElectromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays).Applications of e.m. waves.
Unit 16: OpticsReflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula, Total internal reflection and its applications, Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism, Lens Formula, Magnification, Power of a Lens, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope and Astronomical Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.Wave opticswavefront and Huygens’ principle, Laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width.Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes, Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.
Unit 17: Dual Nature Of Matter And radiationDual nature of radiation.Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation; particle nature of light.Matter waves-wave nature of particle, de Broglie relation.Davisson-Germer experiment.
Unit 18: Atoms And NucleiAlpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.
Unit 19: Electronic DevicesSemiconductors; semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator.Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).Transistor as a switch.
Unit 20: Communication Systems Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation,Need for modulation,Amplitude and Frequency Modulation,Bandwidth of signals,Bandwidth of Transmission medium,Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only).

JEE Main Topicwise Weightage for Physics

Below is the previous years JEE Main physics topics, number of questions asked and marks distribution in the exam.

TopicsNo of QuestionsMarksWeightage
Current Electricity31210.00%
Magnetic Effect of Current & Magnetism286.67%
Alternating Current286.67%
KTG & Thermodynamics286.67%
Sound Waves143.33%
Work Power Energy143.33%
Laws of motion143.33%
Work,Power and Energy146.67%
Centre Of Mass286.67%
Rotational Dynamics286.67%
Modern Physics286.67%
Wave Optics286.67%
Circular Motion143.33%
Electromagnetic Waves143.33%
Communication System143.33%

Best Books for JEE Main Physics Syllabus

  • Advanced Physics (Author: Nelkon and Parker)
  • Concepts of Physics Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Author: H.C. Verma)
  • Feynman Lectures on Physics (Author: Feynman, Leighton and Sands)
  • Fundamentals of Physics (Author: Halliday, Resnick and Walker)
  • Objective Questions on Physics- Chapterwise Solved Papers (Author: D.C. Pandey)
  • Problems in General Physics (Author: IE Irodov)
  • Problems in Physics (Author: AA Pinsky)

JEE Main 2020 Chemistry Syllabus

The chemistry section of JEE Main comprises numerical as well as theoretical questions. In JEE Main 2019, Chemical Bonding in Organic Chemistry, Halogen Derivative in  Organic Chemistry and Ionic Equilibrium etc were given the highest weightage. The entire chemistry syllabus in JEE Main is spread over three sections. 

  • Physical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

Take a look at JEE Main January 2020 Paper 1 Syllabus for Chemistry below.

Section A: Physical Chemistry
Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts In ChemistryMatter and its nature, Dalton’s atomic theoryConcept of atom, molecule, element and compoundPhysical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysisLaws of chemical combinationAtomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulaeChemical equations and stoichiometry
Unit 2: States Of MatterClassification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.
Gaseous State: Measurable properties of gasesGas laws – Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of partial pressureConcept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equationKinetic theory of gases (only postulates)Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocitiesReal gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor and van der Waals equation
Liquid State: Properties of liquids – vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).
Solid State: Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea)Bragg’s Law and its applicationsUnit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solidsElectrical, magnetic and dielectric properties
Unit 3: Atomic StructureThomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitationsNature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effectSpectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom – its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr’s modelDual nature of matter, de-Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features, concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functionsvarious quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significanceshapes of s, p and d – orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum numberRules for filling electrons in orbitals – aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit 4: Chemical Bonding And Molecular Strucure Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
 Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.
 Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajan’s rule, dipole momentValence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple moleculesQuantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory – Its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitalsResonance
Molecular Orbital Theory – Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.
Unit 5: Chemical ThermodynamicsFundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes.
First law of thermodynamics – Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacityHess’s law of constant heat summationEnthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and solutionSecond law of thermodynamicsSpontaneity of processesDS of the universe and DG of the system as criteria for spontaneity, Dgo (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant
Unit 6: SolutionsDifferent methods for expressing concentration of solution – molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law – Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure – composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutionsColligative properties of dilute solutions – relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressureDetermination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van’t Hoff factor and its significance
Unit 7: EquilibriumMeaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.
 Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid -liquid, liquid – gas and solid – gas equilibria, Henry’s law, general characterics of equilibrium involving physical processes.Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier’s principle.
 Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted – Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid-base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.
Unit 8: Redox Reactions And ElectrochemistryElectronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
Eectrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch’s law and its applications.
Electrochemical cells – Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half – cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurementNernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs’ energy changeDry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells.
Unit 9 : Chemical Kinetics Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure and catalystelementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms ofzero and first-order reactions, their characteristics and half-lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions – Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).
Unit 10: Surface ChemistryAdsorption- Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids – Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.
Colloidal state- distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids – lyophilic, lyophobicmulti molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids – Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculationEmulsions and their characteristics
Section B: Inorganic Chemistry
Unit 11: Classificaton Of Elements And Periodicity In PropertiesModem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity.
Unit 12: General Principles And Processes Of Isolation Of MetalsModes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the extraction of metals – concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.
Unit 13: HydrogenPosition of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogenPhysical and chemical properties of water and heavy waterStructure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxideHydrogen as a fuel
Unit 14: S – Block Elements (Alkali And Alkaline Earth Metals)Group – 1 and 2 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships.
 Preparation and properties of some important compounds – sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
Unit 15: P – Block ElementsGroup – 13 to Group 18 ElementsGeneral Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group.
 Groupwise study of the p – block elementsGroup – 13: Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; properties of boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.Group – 14: Allotropes of carbon, tendency for catenation; Structure & properties of silicates, and zeolites.Group – 15: Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of phosphorus.Group – 16: Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.Group – 17: Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.Group –18Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.
UNIT 16: D – And F – BLOCK ELEMENTSTransition Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first row transition elements – physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K2 Cr2 O7 and KMnO4 .
Inner Transition Elements: Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids – Electronic configuration and oxidation states.
Unit 17: Co-Ordination CompoundsIntroduction to co-ordination compounds, Werner’s theoryligands, co-ordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds, isomerismBonding-Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems).
Unit 18: Environmental ChemistryEnvironmental pollution – Atmospheric, water and soil.Atmospheric pollution – Tropospheric and StratosphericTropospheric pollutants – Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Greenhouse effect and Global warming; Acid rain;Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention.Stratospheric pollution- Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer – its mechanism and effects.Water Pollution – Major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.Soil pollution – Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides,. herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention. Strategies to control environmental pollution. 
Section C: Organic Chemistry
Unit 19: Purification And Characterisation Of Organic CompoundsPurification – Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography – principles and their applications
Qualitative analysis – Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) – Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus.
Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis.
Unit 20: Some Basic Principles Of Organic ChemistryTetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules – hybridization (s and p); Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: – C = C – , – C h C – and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism – structural and stereoisomerism.
 Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)
Covalent bond fission – Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond – Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.
Unit 21: HydrocarbonsClassification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.
Alkanes – Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.
Alkenes – Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff’s and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis and polymerization.
Alkynes – Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization.
Aromatic hydrocarbons – Nomenclature, benzene – structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene.
Unit 22: Organic Compounds Containing HalogensGeneral methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions.
Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform & iodoform.
Unit 23: Organic Compounds Containing OxygenGeneral methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Alcohols, Phenols And EthersAlcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration.Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer – Tiemann reaction.Ethers: Structure.Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl groupNucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketonesImportant reactions such as – Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of r – hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.
Carboxylic AcidsAcidic strength and factors affecting it. 
Unit 24: Organic Compounds Containing NitrogenGeneral methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit 25: PolymersGeneral introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization-addition and condensation, copolymerizationNatural and synthetic rubber and vulcanizationsome important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses – polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.
UNIT 26: BiomoleculesGeneral introduction and importance of biomolecules.Carbohydrates – Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides (sucrose, lactose and maltose).Proteins – Elementary Idea of r – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.Vitamins – Classification and functions.Nucleic Acids – Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids.
UNIT 27: Chemistry in Everyday LifeChemicals in medicines – Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins – their meaning and common examples.
Chemicals in food – Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents – common examples. Cleansing agents – Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
UNIT 28: PRINCIPLES RELATED TO PRACTICAL CHEMISTRYDetection of extra elements (N,S, halogens) in organic compounds; Detection of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.
Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following: Inorganic compounds: Mohr’s salt, potash alum.Organic compounds: Acetanilide, pnitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.
Chemistry involved in the titrimetric excercises – Acids bases and the use of indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO4, Mohr’s salt vs KMnO4.
Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis: Cations – Pb2+ , Cu2+, AI3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+. Anions- CO3 2-, S2-, SO4 2-, NO2-, NO3-, CI -, Br, I. (Insoluble salts excluded).
Chemical principles involved in the following experiments:Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4
Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base.
Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols.
Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.

JEE Main Topicwise Weightage for Chemistry

Below is JEE Main Chemistry important topics and number of questions asked in the examination.

TopicsNo of QuestionsMarks
Transition Elements and Coordination Chemistry312
Periodic table and Representative Elements312
Thermodynamics And Gaseous State28
Atomic Structure28
Chemical Bonding28
Chemical And Ionic Equilibrium28
Solid State And Surface Chemistry28
Nuclear Chemistry And Environment28
Mole Concept14
Redox Reaction14
Chemical Kinetics14
Solution and Colligative Properties14
General Organic Chemistry14
Alkyl Halides14
Carboxylic Acid and their Derivatives14
Carbohydrates, amino acid and Polymers14
Aromatic Compounds14

JEE Main 2020 Syllabus for Paper 2 – BArch

Below is the detailed JEE Main January Paper 2 syllabus. Candidates can check section and topicwise syllabus for Part I and II.

Part IAwareness of persons, places, Buildings, Materials. Objects, Texture related to Architecture and build—environment.Visualising three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional drawings.Visualising. different sides of three-dimensional objects.Analytical Reasoning Mental Ability (Visual, Numerical and Verbal).
Part IIThree dimensional – perception: Understanding and appreciation of scale and proportion of objects, building forms and elements, colour texture, harmony and contrast.Design and drawing of geometrical or abstract shapes and patterns in pencil.Transformation of forms both 2 D and 3 D union, subtraction, rotation, development of surfaces and volumes, Generation of Plan, elevations and 3 D views of objects.Creating two dimensional and three dimensional compositions using given shapes and forms.Sketching of scenes and activities from memory of urbanscape (public space, market, festivals, street scenes, monuments, recreational spaces, ect.), landscape (river fronts, jungles, trees, plants, etc.) and rural life.
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